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English Sentence Structure

Japanese Sentence Structure

  • Topic
  • Subject
  • Direct-Object
  • Verb

Particles

  • Query Particles
  • Elaborative Particles

Bunsetsu Jars

Nouns and Verbs

Sentence-Final Fitters

Addressing People

Four Types of Kanji


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 JAPANESE ◯ COMPLETE P R E S E N T S E S S E N T I A L J A PA N E S E T H E M E N TA L M O D E L Edition February 2020 rev. 2 JapaneseComplete.com ji Japanese Complete で Japanese を Master! ..............................5 Essential Japanese ...................................................................5 English Sentence Structure ........................................................7 Subject, Direct-Object, Verb. ............................................................ 7 Japanese Sentence Structure.....................................................8 Foreword To Particles ......................................................................9 Particles........................................................................................10 Query Particles .............................................................................12 Elaborative Particles ......................................................................13 Bunsetsu Jars..........................................................................15 Introduction ..................................................................................15 Jar Structure .................................................................................15 Sentence-Final Fitter.......................................................................16 Arrangement.................................................................................17 Two Kinds of Noun .................................................................18 Nouns with「の」 ......................................................................... 19 Examples: Nouns with「の」 .........................................................20 Nouns with「な」.......................................................................... 21 Examples: Nouns with「な」 .........................................................22 Two Kinds of Verb ..................................................................23 Verbs with「い」........................................................................... 24 Examples: Verbs With「い」.......................................................... 25 Verbs with「う」........................................................................... 26 Examples: Verbs With「う」.......................................................... 27 Two Modes............................................................................28 Modifier Mode .............................................................................28 SFF Mode.....................................................................................29 Addressing People .................................................................30 さん............................................................................................. 30 くん............................................................................................. 30 ちゃん.......................................................................................... 30 The Four Kinds of Kanji ...........................................................31 象形・指事・会意・形声................................................................ 31 Pictographs 象形........................................................................... 32 Indicators 指事.............................................................................. 33 Combographs 会意文字................................................................. 34 Meaning-Sound-Smash 形声文字 .................................................... 35 Handwritten vs. Typeset..........................................................36 Handwritten vs. Typeset ..........................................................37 The Language of Sound Effects ...............................................38 Giseigo (Human) ..........................................................................38 Giseigo (Animal)...........................................................................39 Gitaigo ........................................................................................39 Giongo ........................................................................................40 Future Work...........................................................................41 Kanji Masking Principle .................................................................41 Kanji Categories ...........................................................................41 Lensing Sounds Through Kana .......................................................41 Pitch Accent..................................................................................41 J A P A N E S E J A P A N E S E C O M P L E T E で をM A S T E R ! Created by polylingual language learners and teachers to provide the most swift and thorough learning process, Japanese Complete is the first program to break Japanese into logical pieces so that learners can quickly acquire a mental model of the Japanese language to subsequently build upon this strong foundation. You can learn more at JapaneseComplete.com E S S E N T I A L J A P A N E S E This guide is for establishing a mental model of the Japanese language. This guide is designed to teach you the basics of Japanese grammar and equip you to know the fundamental composition of every Japanese sentence. The Japanese language is a language describing ongoing states and process. There are two tenses: present/future and past. There are three kinds of word: verbs, nouns, and particles. Verbs describe an ongoing state, nouns describe a concrescence of process and require the affirming helper verb “da.” Particles are flags or helpful dancers that latch on to nouns to indicate their role in the sentence, in contrast with English which strongly relies on word sequence, Japanese word order is flexible as long as the particles stay with their dancing partners. There are three connected writing systems, one is called Hiragana that is a phonetic syllabary of consonant+vowel pairs. Hiragana has a foreign word and loanword catalogue analog called Katakana that is 1:1 with Hiragana symbols. Kanji are ideographic forms imported lock-stock-and-barrel from mainland Asia and are used to mask certain native Japanese words fully or partially. There are no spaces in written Japanese and the ideograms actually make reading comprehension fast once there is familiarity; the most frequent 777 kanji will give you 90% familiarity for kanji “in the wild.” To reiterate, the post-position functional words in the Japanese language are called “particles,” they are used to mark the role a word plays in a sentence. Similar postpositional words occur in Turkish and Korean. These words typically indicate who is the subject, or another postposition word might indicate the target of an action, or the target destination when speaking of travel or motion. Particles are ubiquitous [everywhere] in Japanese and must be mastered as a fundamental element, making up the very cellular composition of the Japanese language organism. This guide will show you how Japanese sentence structure is flexible and its arrangement is fluid, whereas in English the sequence of words often determines the role of each word. Japanese is a logical language that has but a handful of basic components from which the rest of the language is built. By understanding the material in this guide you will have a clear mental model of the Japanese language, to help you in your studies and with your mastery. Inspired by decades of language research and experience in teaching Japanese, the materials gathered here would be considered by some formal linguists as loose and irreverent with regards to the established vocabulary and nomenclature surrounding language learning with Japanese. However, the creators of the guide sincerely feel that the language used here makes cloak more suitable to the bone structure of Japanese. If you are going to walk the Japanese mental model, walk with awareness and style. E N G L I S H S E N T E N C E S T R U C T U R E To refresh us before we delve into Japanese sentences, let us identify the main parts of a standard English Sentence. The Quick Brown Fox Jumps Over the Lazy Dog. Quick Brown Fox = Subject Lazy dog = Direct-Object Jumps = Verb Typical English sentence structure reflects this basic sequence: Subject Verb Direct-Object. This sequence is also called SVO for short. S U B J E C T , D I R E C T - O B J E C T , V E R B . In English we anticipate the various parts of speech by knowing the sequence of English thoroughly, like a well-used address-book, or the hallway-like labyrinthine of a library shelf system. The sequence can actually make contemporary English temporarily sound like olde English. The quick brown fox, over the lazy dog, jumps. In the fashion above, we have punctuated our English terms such that a listener can mentally denote what each portion represents. English is incredibly reliant on sentence structure for role-marking disposition. To understand what each word signifies, whether it is the subject, direct- object, or verb, requires a context that is sequence-defined. J A P A N E S E S E N T E N C E S T R U C T U R E Japanese sentence structure is based not on sequence, but on role- marking Japanese letters* known as “particles.” Single-mora particles are in green in the chart. *Letters in Japanese in this case refers to all of the Hiragana mora, a collection of consonant+vowel pairs such as KA and SA that make up the Japanese syllabary. F O R E W O R D T O P A R T I C L E S Rather than relying on word sequence, Japanese relies on particles to partner with words in order to indicate the role of the word in the sentence. Think of particles as dancing partners wearing brightly colored clothing who let you know the current occupation of their partner. A subject dances with a pink scarf wearing dancer. A topic dances with a blue scarf wearing dancer. A destination of travel dances with a green scarf wearing dancer. When we look at the dancers, we can see clearly who they are dancing with, and this is much like how a Japanese sentence operates. Topics are indicated by the topic-marking particle “wa,” and the subject of a sentence is indicated by subject-marking particle “ga.” Note on Topic v Subject: There is no direct equivalent to "topics" in English, think of it as shorthand for “as for blank” or “with general regards to blank” or “to put the spotlight on blank for a second…” We simplify discussion on grammar by reducing the main categories of language theory to Particles, Nouns, and Verbs. We also introduce Sentence-Final Fitters: verbs in their nakedness or nouns combined with the helper-verb copula “da” and Modifiers: verbs in their nakedness before a noun, or nouns with their corresponding noun letter “na” or “no” preceding a noun. P A R T I C L E S R O L E - M A R K E R S O F T H E J A P A N E S E L A N G U A G E The Japanese language is powered by particles: parts of speech added on to the end of nouns to identify the role of each word in the sentence. 「_ か」Ka indicates a question and comes at the end of a phrase. Effectively a question mark “?” Written Japanese uses Ka instead of question marks. Although more contemporary use will employ the symbol “?,” historically Japanese questions and queries are indicated by Ka 「か」 「_ け」Ke: dschool self-interrogative particle similar to “what was that…” 「_ に」Ni: destination of travel, or precise time, or target of action, or indirect object, or hopping aboard/onto a vehicle such as a train or horse. 「_ の」No: The marushka nesting doll particle. Indicates subcategories. Or possession just like an apostrophe S. Also turns verbs into nouns. 「_ も」Mo: Elaborative Particle that can be combined with other particles. Means “also” and can mean “this far” or “so far that…” indicating extremes. 「_ は」Wa: Elaborative Particle that can be combined with other particles. Topic indicator, usually masking the everpresent “GA.” Phonetically “ha” in words or names. 「_ へ」”Eh” is the “Vague destination” of travel particle. Indicates a general direction of travel such as “The West” or “Japan” without precision. Phonetically as part of a word, this letter represents “he” as in “hex” 「_ が」The primary subject indication particle. Consider this particle present in every sentence, either with a Zero content (Zero-Ga) and therefore “unstated subject,” or being masked by Wa [phonetic “ha”]. Consider Wa-Ga structure as a separate entity: 「_ は」+「_ が」 [wa-ga structure] Wa indicates the general universe and Ga indicates the solar system. Or Wa indicates the solar system and Ga indicates a single planet. Or Wa indicates a planet and Ga indicates a single continent. Wa-ga structure uses a larger body and focuses on a smaller, universal trait that can be specified and detailed via Ga. 「_ ね」 The particle “ne” comes at the end of a phrase and indicates “isn’t that so?” or some sort of concord/ agreement-seeking intention. It asserts that the listener would likely (85%+) agree to the phrase being said. 「_ で」”Deh” indicates a setting, a locality where actions or events take place. Also indicates the instrument, tool, or road that helps one accomplish something. Roughly, but not exactly “Via.”
 Q U E R Y P A R T I C L E S P A R T I C L E S I N D I C A T I N G W H O , W H A T , W H E N , W H E R E 「が」 「に」 「を」 「で」 GA indicates Subject NI indicates Precise Time or 
 Exact Place of Happening or Existing, 
 Destination. WO indicates Direct-Object DE indicates Setting (location) 
 By-means-of-some-Tool or Instrument, 
 By some road or way 「に」 「の」 NI can also indicate Indirect-Object NO indicates conceptual nesting-dolls, 
 ownership, 
 subcategories, and 
 noun-ification of verbs. [usu. “nominalization”] 「と」 TO indicates “and” for exhaustive (complete) lists. TO is also the quotation particle. 「や」 YA is used for inexhaustive lists to paint a scene.
 E L A B O R A T I V E P A R T I C L E S P A R T I C L E S P R O V I D I N G A D D I T I O N A L I N F O C A N M A S K O R C O M B I N E W / Q U E R Y P A R T I C L E S 「は」 WA indicates Topic. “Topic” in Japanese is one level zoomed-out of “GA” (subject). WA is often rendered into English as “With regards to blank” and is patently ambiguous and nebulous in its style. Wa is used to move the spotlight into a new universe, but how you complete the sentence is up to you. Example: At the restaurant: I’ll have the salad. わたしは サラダ だ。 Watashi WA sarada DA. Not “I am a salad” because は WA simply means “With regards to me” in this sentence. It is simply bringing the spotlight to “me” and then completing the relevant question mark. In this case, it's clear by the context that we are in a restaurant, so saying “is salad.” is perfectly legitimate Japanese when paired with “With regards to myself.” This sort of speech is very natural, because WA is simply an indication of current conceptual axis. English would require a lot more words to convey each meaning, where WA stands singly: I am going to the movie. わたしは Movieに Go。 I want to go to the store. わたしは Storeに Want-to-Go。 I’ll have the salad. わたしは Salad だ。 I’ll have the salad. 「も」 MO indicates “Also.” MO can mask other particles or be combined with them. MO is used to explain “to this extent” or “all the way, this far! this much!” and is used to add emphasis, exaggeration, or include additional people, places, or things in some happening. わたしも Go。 I also will go / I too will go. そこにも Go。(We will) go there also. We will also go there. E L A B O R A T I V E P A R T I C L E S は 、 も 1) Can mask Query Particles. が→は [ga → wa] に→は [ni → wa] で→は [de → wa] が→も [ga → mo] 2) Can be combined with Query Particles. に→にも [ni → ni mo] と→とも [to → to mo] に→には [ni → ni wa] B U N S E T S U J A R S I N T R O D U C T I O N The arrangement of every Japanese sentence follows the sentence structure as shown, a variable number of jars and then a sentence-final fitter: J A R S T R U C T U R E Every jar shares a similar structure: 1.Noun + Particle, or 2.Modifier + Noun + Particle. + SFF. Noun: Person, Place, or Thing Modifier: Verb-u, Verb-i, Noun+na, Noun+no. S E N T E N C E - F I N A L F I T T E R Sentence-Final Fitters take the form of Verb-u, Verb-i, or either of the two kinds of Noun plus “da,” the copula (helper verb) indicating “is” for nouns. 1.Verb-う (Verb-u) 2.Verb-い (Verb-i) 3.Noun + da. 【Nouns with の drop the の and take だ。】
 【Nouns with な drop the な and take だ。】 
 Sentence-Final Fitters occur at the end of a sequence of Bunsetsu Jars. A sentence-final fitter is a complete sentence by itself, as well. A R R A N G E M E N T Fundamentally, a complete sentence needs just a Sentence-Final Fitter. Sentence-Final-Fitter。 Or, a sentence can have one or more Bunsetsu Jars before the SFF. Sentence-Final-Fitter。 Sentence-Final-Fitter。 Sentence-Final-Fitter。 All the above arrangements of bunsetsu jars and the sentence-final fitter are valid Japanese! T W O K I N D S O F N O U N In Japanese there are two kinds of noun, nouns that use “na” and nouns that use “no.” When they occur as a modifier of another noun, they must be attached to their corresponding mora (either な or の) N O U N S W I T H 「 の 」 Thing こと 事 Time とき 時 Person ひと 人 Now いま 今 Place ところ 所 Oneself じぶん 自分 Inside, in; into なか 中 After, Later あと、ご 後 Side, Direction ほう 方 Reason わけ 訳 For real, Truly ほんとう 本当 For ため ため Situation/Case ばあい 場合 Story, Talk はなし 話 Japan にほん 日本 Ahead of, Early まえ 前 One ひとつ 一つ Child こども 子供 E X A M P L E S : N O U N S W I T H 「 の 」 English Japanese Japan にほんだ。 Of Japan/ Japanese にほんの_ Now いまだ。 Of Now / Current いまの_ Place ところだ。 Of this/that Place ところの_ Oneself じぶんだ。 Of Oneself, self’s … じぶんの_ Current Japan, Japan at Current = いまのにほんだ。 [My] current self = いまのじぶんだ。 It’s a Japanese spot/place = にほんのところだ。 [My] Japanese self = にほんのじぶんだ。 It’s my own spot = じぶんのところだ。 It is the now of me (It’s my time to shine) = じぶんのいまだ。 The real me = ほんとうのじぶんだ。 When used as a modifier to describe another noun, at those times modifier nouns must be paired with their respective mora. In this case all these nouns must pair with の in Modifier Mode to describe the base noun (immediately preceding だ)。 N O U N S W I T H 「 な 」 Style, Way ふう 風 Extremely ひじょう 非常 Like, Similar みたい 見たい Various いろいろ 色々 Necessary ひつよう 必要 Quite けっこう 結構 Favored このみ 好み Challenging たいへん 大変 Normal ふつう 普通 Separate べつ 別 (classically) きれい 綺麗 Beautiful (not usually kanji) Certain たしか 確か Important, Serious だいじ 大事 Easy かんたん 簡単 Nature, Natural しぜん 自然 Of great importance たいせつ 大切 Opposite, Vice-Versa ぎゃく 逆 Famous, well-known ゆうめい 有名 E X A M P L E S : N O U N S W I T H 「 な 」 English Japanese It is a famous style. ゆうめいなふうだ。 It is a challenging spot. たいへんなところだ。 They are a beautiful person. きれいなひとだ。 It’s an important story. だいじなはなしだ。 When used as a modifier to describe another noun, at those times modifier nouns must be paired with their respective mora. In this case all these nouns must pair with な in Modifier Mode to describe the base noun (immediately preceding だ)。 Modifier-Noun な Base-Noun だ。 →“Is Modified Base-noun.”
 T W O K I N D S O F V E R B In Japanese, there are two kinds of verb: verbs that end with the letter “eeh” い and verbs that end with the letter “ooh” う。
 V E R B S W I T H 「 い 」 There is no… ない 無い Good いい、よい 良い Brilliant すごい 凄い Many おおい 多い Big おおきい 大きい High-up たかい 高い Bad わるい 悪い Fun たのしい 楽しい Strong つよい 強い New あたらしい 新しい Early, soon はやい 早い Small ちいさい 小さい Long ながい 長い Delicious おいしい 美味しい Interesting, funny おもしろい 面白い Glad, joyful うれしい 嬉しい Young わかい 若い Difficult むずかしい 難しい E X A M P L E S : V E R B S W I T H 「 い 」 English Japanese It is a fun story. たのしいはなしだ。 They are a strong person. つよいひとだ。 It is a new situation. あたらしいばあいだ。 It is a difficult spot. むずかしいところだ。 When used as a modifier to describe a noun, verbs retain their normal shape. They can be past or future-present tense. This guide only shows future- present tense currently. Some other ways that may be helpful in thinking about Modifier Modes: V + Base-Noun だ。→ Is a Verbing Base-noun. V + Base-Noun だ。→ Is a Verbful Base-noun. V + Base-Noun だ。→ Is a Verbish Base-noun. The -ish, -ful, -ing, -ese, endings that English adds are implied when a Japanese word is in Modifier Mode.
 V E R B S W I T H 「 う 」 Say, speak いう 言う Do する 為る To exist, to have, ある 有る to occur Become なる 成る Think, believe おもう 思う Go いく 行く Arrive くる 来る See みる 見る Do, give やる To exist (animate) いる 居る Be ready, できる 出来る achieve Have/hold, carry もつ 持つ Go out でる 出る Contemplate かんがえる 考える To Understand わかる 分かる To enter はいる 入る To make/create つくる 作る To hear, to listen きく 聞く、聴く E X A M P L E S : V E R B S W I T H 「 う 」 English Japanese Is a will-go person. いくひとだ。 Is a will-be-created reason. つくるわけだ。 Is an existing style. あるふうだ。 Is a capable self. できるひとだ。 When used as a modifier to describe a noun, verbs retain their normal shape. They can be past or future-present tense. This guide only shows the tense we call “future-present.” Is-go(ing) and Will-go are not different. T W O M O D E S W O R D S C A N D E S C R I B E , A N D W O R D S C A N D E F I N E . The two kinds of words in Japanese, Nouns and Verbs, have two modes: 1.Modifier Mode when they occur mid-sentence or at the beginning of a sentence, and 2.Sentence-Final Fitter Mode, where the noun or verb is placed at the end of the sentence. M O D I F I E R M O D E Nouns with “no” or “na” must include their “no” or “na” when used as a modifier: べつなわけが ほんとうの わけだ。 A separate reason is the real reason. Verbs as a modifier simply come in front of a noun: かんがえるひとが すごいひとに なる。 The contemplating person becomes the brilliant person. S F F M O D E Nouns* as a Sentence-Final Fitter require the helper-verb “is.” In Japanese the copula is “da” 「だ。」 ふつうだ。 Is normal. はなしだ。 Is a story. にほんだ。 Is Japan. Verbs as a Sentence-Final Fitter may remain as they are: おいしい。 Is delicious / is delicious’ing. たのしい。 Is fun / is fun’ing. わかい。 Is young / is young’ing. *Both nouns with no and nouns with na take da instead of their noun letter when SFF. A D D R E S S I N G P E O P L E Japanese uses suffixes after “upper names” (last names / surnames) to show respect. Varying levels of respectful language pervade and permeate the Japanese language. The standard way of addressing someone, like Mr. Blank or Ms. Blank in the Anglosphere, would be to say Blank-San. (San rhymes with Khan) さ ん The suffix “san” roughly translates to Mister or Misses and is attached to the family name of the person. Bill Yamaguchi is summoned by saying “Hey, Yamaguchiさん!” く ん The suffix “kun” (sounds like coon) is used inside a company to talk to your [male/strong animus] colleauges. Jon Slaybow is summoned by saying “Hey, Slaybowくん!” ち ゃ ん The suffix “chan” (roughly rhymes with “fawn”) roughly translates to “baby!” from the Japanese word for newborn: あかちゃん [red babe] Miles Lovingsworth is summoned by saying “Milesちゃん!” somewhat literally "Miles, baby!” It's a cute ending not to be used with your boss, teacher, or superiors; just with friends and people younger than you. T H E F O U R K I N D S O F K A N J I Kanji are mainland Asian ideograms imported over the centuries. While the etymological origins of many glyphs are murky, knowing the etymological history can help in learning and remembering the meanings and readings of the kanji. Japanese culture has been perfumed with kanji since around the 5th century and the ideograms and glyphs have been incorporated smoothly into the Japanese language. In fact, the Hiragana and Katakana syllabaries were created by simplifying phonetic-use kanji. These original variants of the Hiragana and Katakana were called the Man’yo-gana. Four Main Types of Kanji 象 形 ・ 指 事 ・ 会 意 ・ 形 声 1.Pictographs 象形 2.Indicators 指事 3.Combographs 会意 4.Meaning-and-Sound Borrowers 形声. P I C T O G R A P H S 象 形 The first type is pictographs which stand in for the actual thing they represent. Some researchers claim fewer than 4% are actually pictographs. 人 biped (human) 女 woman 手 hand 田 rice field 子 child 日 sun 月 moon 門 gate 山 mountain 川 river
 I N D I C A T O R S 指 事 Indicators. Visual stand-in or pointer for a concept. 上 Up/above
 下 Down/below
 中 Middle/between
 一 One
 二 Two
 三 Three
 天 Heaven
 立 Stand up
 引 Pull
 公 Public
 共 Together
 仲 Relationship
 末 Top end, tip
 片 one of a pair
 C O M B O G R A P H S 会 意 文 字 Combographs, kanji composed of two or more kanji to create a third meaning. “A meeting of meanings” to forge a new alloy with different properties. 武 is composed of 戈 and 止 Military arts = Spear + Stop 「信」は「人」と「言」 Trust (person + speak) Word is bond. 「相」は 「木」と「目」 Physiognomy (tree + eye) 「休」は「人」と「木」 Take a Break = Person + Tree 「男」は「田」と「力」 Man = Field + Power 「即」は「皀」と「卩」 Namely = Fragrant + Seal 「赤」は「大」と「火」 Red (Big + Fire) 「香」は「黍」と「甘」 Fragrance (Millet + Sweet) 「髟」は「長」と「彡」 Hair hanging long (Long + hair) M E A N I N G - S O U N D - S M A S H 形 声 文 字 Semantics and Sound Borrowers, meaning and sound borrowers, soundalikes inherit a phonetic value (pronunciation / reading) from one of their subkanji, and inherit meaning from another. We can call them “sound-alike” or “mean-alike” kanji. Meaning and Sound Borrowers make up 90% of Japanese Kanji. Meaning inherited on the left, reading inherited from the right. 「形声文字は、音を表わす文字(音符)と、意味 を表わす部分(意符)で構成されています。」 “Sound and Meaning Borrower Kanji have a phonetic helper subkanji and a meaning helper subkanji.”
 H A N D W R I T T E N V S . T Y P E S E T Handwritten Japanese looks like いろはにほへとちりぬるを わかよだれぞつねならむ うゐのおくやまけふこえて あさきゆめみしゑひもせず Typeset Japanese looks like いろはにほへとちりぬるを わかよだれぞつねならむ うゐのおくやまけふこえて あさきゆめみしゑひもせず H A N D W R I T T E N V S . T Y P E S E T I N T E R L E AV E D いろはにほへとちりぬるを いろはにほへとちりぬるを わかよだれぞつねならむ わかよだれぞつねならむ うゐのおくやまけふこえて うゐのおくやまけふこえて あさきゆめみしゑひもせず あさきゆめみしゑひもせず T H E L A N G U A G E O F S O U N D E F F E C T S In Japanese, sound effects are instrumental to the language and are ubiquitous. Sound effects can indicate the sound an animal makes, much like “buzz buzz” or “bark bark” in English, Japanese has gi-sei-go (you can remember because “sei” sounds like “say”) that emulates animal speech, or human behaviors. Sound effects can also imitate situations or properties. Things like slipperiness of an ice rink, or the moistness/dampness of a towel can also be described using sound effect language. This sort of Sound Effect Language is called Gi-tai-go (“tai” means “situation”). More general sound effect language, for rain and weather, uses the name Gi-on-go (“on” means “sound”). Sound Effect Language is a fundamental component of Japanese and native speakers can have complete conversations using only Sound Effect Language. All are rendered here in Hiragana for beginner convenience. G I S E I G O ( H U M A N ) Sneeze くしゅ
 Stare at intently じろじろ
 Secret Whispering こそこそ
 Smiling にこにこ
 Chug a drink がぶがぶ G I S E I G O ( A N I M A L ) Bark Bark わんわん
 Meow Meow にゃあにゃあ 
 Neigh/Winnie ひひいん
 Ribbit Ribbit けろけろ
 Buzz Buzz ぶうん
 Fox's Cry こんこん
 Cow Says Moe もおもお G I T A I G O Spicy and Hot ぴりぴり
 Sticky, Moist べとべと
 Sticky with Sweat ぺとぺと
 Sparkling きらきら
 Steamy ほかほか
 Silence after a Joke falls flat しいん G I O N G O Heavy, Continuous Rain ざあざあ
 Crashing Sound がしゃ
 Thunder Rumbling ごろごろ
 Soaking Wet びしょびしょ
 Slippery, Slick つるつる
 F U T U R E W O R K K A N J I M A S K I N G P R I N C I P L E Kanji and Japanese words work together in a unique way, where the kanji masks some hiragana partially or completely, so one must know the reading of the kanji to utter it. For tough kanji, rare kanji, and school-age kids there is Furi-gana (hiragana or katakana on top of the kanji to assist in reading it aloud). We hope to investigate this in more detail in a future version of this guide. K A N J I C A T E G O R I E S There are roughly 15 categories of kanji where one kanji indicates a specific type, such as: names for raw materials, communication terms, nature, society, medicine, bugs, and so forth. By learning the categories you can often short-cut the meaning or the reading of the kanji. L E N S I N G S O U N D S T H R O U G H K A N A Sounds from English and other languages are filtered through the Hiragana and Katakana which is why Japanese accents tend to have a lot of extra vowels, they are learning English by filtering the sounds through Hiragana and Katakana letters. Knowing this can speed up comprehension and make your Katakana abilities ninja-like fast. P I T C H A C C E N T To speak fluidly and fluently one needs to master the pitch accent of Japanese, the sing-songiness of delivering a sentence. Certain words have predetermined pitch accents, news anchors must study them.

Master the Elements of Grammar

Japanese Particles are what make Japanese unique as a language. When we study Japanese (or Korean for that matter) having a solid understanding of how particles are incorporated and used to reflect and express states of the mind is crucial.

Japanese Complete focuses on a "Particles First" approach that teaches all the grammatical particles first. This unconventional technique actually enables the most accelerated learning in Japanese ever, because by frequency, particles are the most frequent glyphs of the language.

  • Master Japanese Swiftly.
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Translator-Grade Materials

Crafted by Translators for Translators, Japanese Complete offers insights into language learning that are simply unavailable elsewhere.